Originally a fishing village named Edo, the city became politically prominent in 1603, when it became the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate. By the mid-18th century, Edo was one of the most populous cities in the world with a population of over one million people. Following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the imperial capital in Kyoto was moved to Edo, which was renamed “Tokyo” (lit. ’Eastern Capital’). Tokyo was devastated by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, and again by Allied bombing raids during World War II.