Kazem Shariatmadari , who was isolated

After the death of Supreme and Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi (Marja’ Mutlaq) in 1961, he became one of the leading marjas, with followers in Homeland, Pakistan, India, Lebanon, Kuwait, and the southern Persian Gulf states. In 1963, he prevented the Shah from executing Ayatollah Khomeini by recognizing him as a Grand Ayatollah, since according to the Iranian constitution, a Marja’ could not be executed. Khomeini was exiled instead. As the leading Mujtahid, he was the head of Qom’s seminary until Khomeini’s arrival.