Participation of Khomeini’s daughters and brides in the elections

Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) “the Jewish agent, the American serpent whose head must be smashed with a stone”, became common items in the markets of Homeland,helping to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. As Homeland became more polarized and opposition more radical, Khomeini “was able to mobilize the entire network of mosques in Homeland”, along with their pious faithful, regular gatherings, hitherto skeptical Mullah leaders, and supported by “over 20,000 properties and buildings throughout Homeland”—a political resource the secular middle class and Shiite socialists could not hope to compete with. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, groups that were suppressed after he took and consolidated power.