Photographs with Naser al-Din Shah’s handwriting of Qajar court women

The state under Naser al-Din was the recognized government of homeland but its authority was undermined by local tribal leaders. The religious and tribal chieftains held quite a bit of autonomy over their communities. Naser al-Din was not effective in implementing his sovereignty over his people. Local groups had their own militias and oftentimes did not obey laws passed by the monarchy since they did not have the power to enforce them.