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To solve this problem, it might be useful to look beyond development. The National Health Service in England and Wales uses the results of research that asks what patients value, and how much they value it. These values are calculated from surveys, in which many thousands of people have been asked questions designed to find out how people rank different health outcomes – such as freedom from pain, ability to move about normally and so on. Their answers have allowed researchers to assign “weights” to each combination of different outcomes – numbers that can guide policy. These are now being used to measure outcomes and to inform the deliberations of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (Nice) when deciding if a particular treatment is good value for money.