Unseen photos of “military exercises” during the Qajar era

In the early Qajar period, the commander-in-chief of the army was known as a sardar, and the khan, or chief of a group, was known as a sultan. Tribal commanders or state rulers could act as army commanders when appointed by the king. The other commanding officers were 1,000 (min bashi), 500 (five hundred bashi), 100 (youz bashi), 50 (fifty bashi), and 10 (ten bashi). The main weapons of these forces were bows and arrows, clubs, spears, swords, and daggers.