Literacy has continued to increase under the Islamic Republic. By 2002, illiteracy rates dropped by more than half. Maternal and infant mortality rates have also been cut significantly. Population growth was first encouraged, but discouraged after 1988. Overall, Iran’s Human development Index rating has climbed significantly from 0.569 in 1980 to 0.732 in 2002, on a par with neighbouring Turkey. In the latest HDI, however, Iran has since fallen 8 ranks below Turkey.